Imperial Cleaning

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La Russie et la Chine sont malheureusement dans la catégorie des pays voyous. La Crimée en sait quelque chose. Vous rendez-vous compte que votre commentaire est à très forte connotation idéologique et que vous ne définissez pas les choses?

Trouvez-vous cela si étonnant ou scandaleux? Exactement la même chose ; nos entreprises recrutent là où cela leur coûte moins cher la Mondialisation , les délocalisations , ça aussi ça vous parle?

Moi si , donc je peux vous en parler si vous voulez …. Dans votre seconde partie , le résumé en serait que: De ces deux pays lequel est le plus pourri et constituerait le meilleur ou le pire ennemi?

En revanche , comme tout pays développé , elle peut parfaitement entretenir de bons rapports avec tous ces voisins européens comme avec ceux du reste de la planète qui partagent à la fois des intérêts communs , des valeurs , une Histoire , des idées fédératrices.

Alors , peut-être que la Russie cherche à nous diviser et à nous affaiblir mais les USA ne font pas mieux , tout-au contraire …. Ce qui prouve que volontarisme politique et détermination peuvent payer! En a t-elle les moyens , en a t-elle le désir? Je ne vois comment cela pourrait être le cas …. Non mais il faut être complètement marteau …. Cela change de prisme de reflexion.

Il est grand temps que la France redevienne libre de ses choix. Jolindien Commencez donc par vous poser la bonne question: La France a des intérêts en Syrie? Pour vous aider, une piste: La France avait des intérêts en Libye? Pas à ma connaissance Et les russes ont ils été si efficaces en Syrie en bombardant les civils hostiles à assad plutôt que daesh?

Ben non, ils créent des terroristes supplémentaires…. Nostalgie, quand tu nous tiens…. Prenons seulement les deux plus forts! Et on a eu le Vietnam … le disque est rayé pour ce qui ressort de la vérité des dirigeants amerloques.. En torpillant Fillion …des types politique dont la femme fait ce que faisait pénélope est monnaie courante.. Il me semble que ce sont plutôt nos blindés qui sont positionnés en Estonie sur la route de Kaliningrad.

Ça vous rappellera les années quarante quand un gouvernement de collabos faisait la chasse aux vrais patriotes. Une époque que les gens comme vous doivent regretter. Merci pour cette franche rigolade! Un peu comme les fichés S en fait…. Il suffit de lire la plupart des réponses pour mesurer à quel point vous avez raison. Certains ici se réjouiraient ouvertement si nos soldats étaient attaqués et tués par les russes. On connait tous la suite. Mais de quoi parlez-vous???

De quelle politique conforme aux intérêts du peuple français est-il question? Les russes mènent une politique conforme aux intérêts russes , point final! Si vous ne voyez pas que tout est désaxé et décentré de la réalité, je ne peux rien pour vous. Non Macron défend les intérêts de la ploutocratie voire la kleptocratie. Une mafia banquaire qui nous ruine avec une dette illégitime. Les ordonnances code du travail Macron ne sont pas dans mon intérêt. Soit vous êtes un larbin soit un aveugle soit un non je vais resté courtois.

Je précise que je me permet de vous juger car vous vous êtes permis de me juger. Les vrais opposants sont emprisonnés, tués, ou en exil. Vous avez pas mieux? Amusant tous ces commentaires…. La question qui semble passionner les foules est pourquoi autant de russophiles en France? Il me semble que poser la question est y répondre, non? Il suffit de comparer Poutine et Macron et Trump dans une moindre mesure. Jean, Un patriote soucieux de servir la France et les français nous suffirait largement.

Mais ça ne vous autorise pas à insulter nos soldats. On est plus en 40 chef. Un exercice de corones……. Les soldats ont les c. Hypothèse à la quelle je ne crois pas une minute. A la russe quoi. Tu te fous de la gueule du monde! Là aussi tu te fous de la gueule du monde? La paix dans le monde est chaque jour mise en défaut par les états-unis et ses sbires occidentalo-sionistes.

Dans le cas présent, cela aurait pu être évité depuis longtemps si nos irresponsables politiques avaient prévu de fournir un 2 ème porte-avion à notre marine. Je sais bien Thaurac. Avant de menacer ton adversaire étudie le pour savoir de quoi il est capable; Secundo: Il reste à changer les réglés engagements et prévenir les Russes des nouvelles règles.

Trump annonce un truc… Au final ce sera autre chose…. Et tout cela conforte Poutine dans sa politique de redressement militaire. Macron malmené en France…. La question est simple: En attendant, je crois que M. Assad range des avions au côté de ceux de M. Poutine, alors cela ne va pas être simple de les bombarder. Essayez de vous renseigner avant de reproduire des énormités sur le plan économique. Concernant la situation économique de la Russie vous trouverez de bonnes indications sur le site pro-russe du Fond Monétaire Internationnal, ainsi que le le site pro-russe lui aussi de la Banque Mondiale.

La réponse Française était adaptée à la situation. Pour une fois À condition que les faits suivent Parce que le blabla ça fait pousser des ailes au Poutine Poutine en menaçant parle aux russes Il va nous couler….. En est il sûr? Et cela fait 25 ans que cela dure! Affreux Jojo a raison. Une large partie du jeu est hors de notre portée pour juger.

Eh oui Simple accident ou assassinat? Je ne crois pas. Exactement la personne dont a besoin M. Faut pas se foutre de la gueule des gens! Pas besoin de drones dans les réacteurs …La Gatling suffit! On pourrait pas, par exemple… Placer en stationnaire quelques petits drones pas chers autour du bateau dans un rayon de quelques centaines de mètres pour faire bien ch le pilotes qui y réfléchira à deux fois avant de faire ingérer à ses réacteurs un kilo de plastique pas cher….

Il va vous en falloir quelques centaines ou milliers de drones pas chers en milieu salin pour couvrir une calotte sphérique de rayon n km! Je sais que cela ne plait pas mais je le répète: Ce vol est un avertissement sans frais. Ils vont en détruire un maximum et ils ont les moyens en Syrie Le risque est trop important. Il taperont sur le maillon faible, les navires français. A chacun de trouver la réponse.

Pourquoi voulez vous à tout prix entrainer les chinois avec vous? Les USA seuls non. À aleksandar La vraie question est: Nous vous conseillons de jouer à Risk, Diplomacy ou tout autre jeu de stratégie durant lesquels des alliances sont nouées et ensuite vous pourrez de nouveau écrire dans ce blogue.

Un bilan à charge tellement lourd que ce fameux rapport est bloqué. Stop, il est temps de dire stop à cette escalade et ces jeux rhétoriques qui peuvent déboucher sur une catastrophe majeure! La question centrale restant quels bénéfices et pour qui de ces confrontations?

A chacun de peser là où il est…. Vous nous fatiguez Rigel! Est-ce techniquement et politiquement possible? Quelles en seraient les conséquences? Pour Poutine et ses sbires, Internet est devenue une arme, notamment de destruction économique cf les milliards perdus en raison des attaques de piratage.

Ne renions pas notre démocratie. Tous les pays le font. Y compris les démocraties occidentales. Regardez un peu le débat sur le Brexit. De la pure intox, comme vous diriez. Tu vois, la réalité est implacable pour les troll dans ton genre…. Il y a des trolls sur ce site mais pas tous aux ordres de Poutine.

So Provence and Gallia Aquitania or Aquitanica are the names used since medieval times for Occitania i. Limousin , Auvergne , Languedoc and Gascony. Thus the historic Duchy of Aquitaine must not be confused with the modern French region called Aquitaine: The names "Occitania" [14] and "Occitan language" Occitana lingua appeared in Latin texts from as early as — [15] to [16] and during the following years of the early 14th century; texts exist in which the area is referred to indirectly as "the country of the Occitan language" Patria Linguae Occitanae.

On 28 September Occitanie became the name of the administrative region that succeeded the regions of Midi-Pyrénées and Languedoc-Roussillon , [18] it is a small part of Occitania. Its current definition is variable. In the most common usage, Occitania designates the territory where the Occitan has remained used until today, [32] [33] [34] within the limits defined between [35] and the 20th century. If the preceding notions are generally limited to the modern linguistic boundaries of Occitan, this term can also be used to designate a larger territory.

The term "Occitania" becomes commonplace more and more in the vocabulary of scientists. In , the name Occitanie is used for the French administrative region Languedoc-Roussillon-Midi-Pyrénées which is located on part of the traditional Occitania and includes the Roussillon. Occitania comes from the medieval Latin Occitania. It is an appellation promoted by Dante Alighieri of Occitan by the way of saying "oui" in Old Occitan-Catalan; as opposed to the "langue de si" Italian and the "langue d'oïl" "yes" in Old French.

The ending -itania is probably an imitation of the name [Aqu] itania Aquitaine. The first attestation of the use of Occitanie in French dates from All of the Occitan language country have had various designations throughout history.

The word Occitania has been the subject of whimsical etymologies, just like Languedoc formerly understood as "land of Goth" or "language of Goth" [65] Alongside the rapprochement to the Occitan language retained today for the words Languedoc and Occitania.

Thus, in La Minerve Française , a collective work published in Paris in , we find a history of the changes of name of the provinces which makes the word Occitanie a doublet of the word Occident formed in the Lower Empire, giving it for origin the meaning of "western regions", [66] and no region where we speak the Occitan language.

Like the Occitan language, Occitania has been designated under various successive names. Occitania or Pays d'Oc are the most frequently used terms today. However the term Provence is still used when the Felibritgists sing the Copa Santa for example during the annual festival of Estello. The term "Occitania" now covers a linguistic region. This meaning was used in medieval times attested since This partition between Occitan language and langue d'oïl in the Gallo-roman space is very old since it started with the romanisation itself.

It is taken up in the 19th century by the literary association of Felibritge [82] then it is again claimed since 20th century, especially since the end of s. According to Frédéric Mistral's dictionary " Treasury of Felibritge ", the term Occitania is sometimes used by scholars to describe the Southern France in general and mainly for the former province of Languedoc.

The langue d'oc is a territorialized language, that is to say, spoken mainly on a territory whose boundaries can be described. This part attempts to describe the origins of the Occitanie concept, the different names that this territory has taken and the creation of the modern concept of Occitania.

The speakers of the Occitan language do not use a single meaning of their language because Occitan is not a monolithic language with for example a single dictionary where each speaker finds exactly their vocabulary, but a juxtaposition of dialects. Also, many studies have focused on the differences between Provençal, Languedoc, etc.

We must also remember the many common features of the Occitan cultural space , which are generally considered partisans. Robert Lafont develops this idea in the introduction of the "History and Anthology of Occitan Literature".

This socio-linguistic argument is modulated according to the authors but it is accepted by all the currents, including among the authors who speak of "domain d'oc" since by definition, their study of the d'oc domain rests on the consciousness of the existence of a common culture.

The different speakers of the language share many common traits tonic accentuation, a close vocabulary, the frequent use of the subjunctive, etc. For Occitanists, this intercomprehension means that Occitan is one language, for others, it means that these languages are very close but all agree that the speakers of this space understand each other.

The social characteristics of Occitania are not eternal and intangible because factors of endogenous mutations [88] and the game of the European influences, especially with the Northern France, can blur these social peculiarities. The best studied example is that of Roman law which is better maintained in the Occitan Early Middle Ages society than in the Northern France thanks to the promulgations of Visigoth and Burgundians laws.

With regard to education: Pierre Goubert and Daniel Roche write, to explain the low literacy in Occitania in the 18th century, that there exists in these territories a confidence maintained in the old vulgar languages. From a demographic point of view, the influence of the family is still felt in because of the small number of families with many children. In politics, many debates have also taken place around the expression Red Southern coined by Maurice Agulhon [95] to find out if the "pays d'oc" was more " republic " than the northern half of France.

Emmanuel Todd analyzing the regions that voted for Jean-Luc Mélenchon , calling himself a "Republican" in the presidential elections, declares that " what is obvious is his general inscription in the Occitan family[ Finally, for André Armengaud, [97] these common social characteristics make it possible to write a historical synthesis.

But since , no other "History of Occitan" has been undertaken. If the term Occitania appears in French from the midth century, [98] [99] then in in a collection of laws of the ancien régime , [] it only becomes current at 19th century. Thus, the duke of Angoulême conspired with a view to the establishment of a Kingdom of Occitania [] or of a Vice-Royalty of Occitania [] at the time of the Restoration. The term is popularized by the publications of Raynouard and Rochegude , and known in its contemporary sense by the English historian Sharon Turner.

It appears in the Treasury of Felibritge and in the statutes of this organization in The Institute of Occitan Studies was born in These initiatives as well as others remain closely linked, notably because of the dual membership of their main animators at Felibritge.

After the Second World War , the creation of the Institute of Occitan Studies , presided over by a resistant at a time when the Felibritge like the SEO were tainted by lawsuits of collaboration , but above all its action in terms of linguistic reform, particularly its desire to adapt the classical norm to Provençal , mark a break with a large fraction of the Felibritge [] François Fontan creates the first overtly Occitan nationalist party in In France, Occitania is confronted with a problem of recognition of Occitan since , the French is the only one "language of the Republic".

In , it is made compulsory in the public space places of commerce and work, public transport Note, however, a variable support rate depending on the geographical origin of the voters.

Occitanie is in the lead Behind, arrives Languedoc-Pyrenees with This new region should be called Occitanie with the subtitle Pyrenees-Mediterranean , according to the vote of the regional councilors on June 24 of , and after final validation by the Government of France and Conseil d'État.

There are six main regional varieties, with easy inter-comprehension among them: All these varieties of the Occitan language are written and valid. Standard Occitan is a synthesis which respects soft regional adaptations. See also Northern Occitan and Southern Occitan. Catalan is a language very similar to Occitan and there are quite strong historical and cultural links between Occitania and Catalonia.

The regions of Ancien Régime that make up Occitania are the following: Bourbonnais southern half — approx. The administrative regions covering Occitania are the following: Occitanie region except the Pyrénées-Orientales where a majority speak Catalan , although the Fenouillèdes region, in the North-West of the department, that is to say of Occitan language and culture , Nouvelle-Aquitaine except the peripheries where one speaks basque , poitevin and saintongeais , Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes in the southern half, namely almost all the Drôme and the Ardèche , the southern Isère and some fringes of the Loire and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur.

The geographical delimitation of Occitania most commonly accepted was specified between —beginning of research on the linguistic boundaries [] —and the 20th century. The practice of Occitan is not the same uniformly throughout the territory. In addition, there is a linguistic transition area in the north called Croissant where the terms of d'oil and Occitan interfere strongly see Croissant.

Instead, some territories are not generally considered to be part of Occitania according to the modern definition: Written texts in Occitan appeared in the 10th century: The spoken dialects of Occitan are centuries older and appeared as soon as the 8th century, at least, revealed in toponyms or in Occitanized words left in Latin manuscripts, for instance.

Occitania was often politically united during the Early Middle Ages, under the Visigothic Kingdom and several Merovingian and Carolingian sovereigns. In Thionville , nine years before he died , Charlemagne vowed that his empire be partitioned into three autonomous territories according to nationalities and mother tongues: Since then the country was never politically united again, though Occitania was united by a common culture which used to cross easily the political, constantly moving boundaries.

Occitania suffered a tangle of varying loyalties to nominal sovereigns: Occitan literature was glorious and flourishing at that time: But from the 13th to the 17th centuries, the French kings gradually conquered Occitania, sometimes by war and slaughtering the population, sometimes by annexation with subtle political intrigue. From the end of the 15th century, the nobility and bourgeoisie started learning French while the people stuck to Occitan this process began from the 13th century in two northernmost regions, northern Limousin and Bourbonnais.

But despite measures such as this, a strong feeling of national identity against the French occupiers remained and Jean Racine wrote on a trip to Uzès in In , the revolutionary committees tried to re-establish the autonomy of the "Midi" regions: The 19th century witnessed a strong revival of the Occitan literature and the writer Frédéric Mistral was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in But from onwards, children who spoke Occitan at school were punished in accordance with minister Jules Ferry 's recommendations.

That led to a deprecation of the language known as la vergonha the shaming: The situation got worse with the media excluding the use of the langue d'oc. In spite of that decline, the Occitan language is still alive and gaining fresh impetus. Although not really a colony in a modern sense, there was an enclave in the County of Tripoli. Most people of this county came from Occitania and Italy and so the Occitan language was spoken.

The oldest association is the Felibritge , founded in Some of its members founded in a distinct movement under the name of Institut d'Estudis Occitans after the Second World War. Some associations adhering to Felibritge and Parlaren claim a Provençal language distinct from Occitan. Other associations claim distinct "languages d'oc", even if, paradoxically, some of them are grouped together in an Alliance of Oc languages:.

They also have elected officials in the municipalities of Aran, the Parliament of Catalonia and the Spanish Senate. In the Catalan regional election the electors of the Val d'Aran voted mostly for pro-unionist parties to Spain or "constitutionalists". They have never had elected representatives in national or European institutions or in general councils. However, in the French regional elections , the Occitan Party , within the framework of the participation of the federation Regions and Peoples with Solidarity to Europe Écologie , enters five regional councils.

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